Plasma Surface Polymerized and Biomarker Conjugated Boron Nitride Nanoparticles for Cancer-Specific Therapy: Experimental and Theoretical Study
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A new low-pressure plasma-based approach to activate the surface of BN nanoparticles (BNNPs) in order to facilitate the attachment of folate acid (FA) molecules for cancer-specific therapy is described. Plasma treatment of BNNPs (BNNPs(PT)) was performed in a radiofrequency plasma reactor using ethylene and carbon dioxide monomers. The carboxyl groups deposited on the surface of BNNPs(PT) were activated by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and participated in the condensation reaction with ethylene diamine (EDA) to form a thin amino-containing layer (EDA-BNNPPT). Then, the DCC-activated FA was covalently bonded with BNNPs(PT) by a chemical reaction between amino groups of EDA-BNNPs(PT) and carboxyl groups of FA. Density functional theory calculations showed that the pre-activation of FA by DCC is required for grafting of the FA to the EDA-BNNPs(PT). It was also demonstrated that after FA immobilization, the electronic characteristics of the pteridine ring remain unchanged, indicating that the targeting properties of the FA/EDA-BNNPs(PT) nanohybrids are preserved.
KeywordsBN nanoparticles, chemical vapor deposition, plasma surface polymerization, folic acid conjugates, drug delivery nanocarriers, density functional theory
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceNanomaterials. 2019, vol. 9, issue 12, p. 1-14.