Design of Signal Generators Using Active Elements Developed in I3T25 CMOS Technology Single IC Package for Illuminance to Frequency Conversion
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This paper presents a compact and simple design of adjustable triangular and square wave functional generators employing fundamental cells fabricated on a single integrated circuit (IC) package. Two solutions have electronically tunable repeating frequency. The linear adjustability of repeating frequency was verified in the range between 17 and 264 kHz. The main benefits of the proposed generator are the follows: A simple adjustment of the repeating frequency by DC bias current, Schmitt trigger (threshold voltages) setting by DC driving voltage, and output levels in hundreds of mV when the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with limited supply voltage levels is used. These generators are suitable to provide a simple conversion of illuminance to frequency of oscillation that can be employed for illuminance measurement and sensing in the agriculture applications. Experimental measurements proved that the proposed concept is usable for sensing of illuminance in the range from 1 up to 500 lx. The change of illuminance within this range causes driving of bias current between 21 and 52 mu A that adjusts repeating frequency between 70 and 154 kHz with an error up to 10% between the expected and real cases.
KeywordsCMOS active element, comparator, electronic adjusting, frequency tunability, functional generator, illuminance sensing, integrator, square and triangular waves
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceSENSORS. 2020, vol. 20, issue 4, p. 1-13.