Mass Production of Plasma Activated Water: Case Studies of Its Biocidal Effect on Algae and Cyanobacteria
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Efficient treatment of contaminated water in industrially viable volumes is still a challenging task. The hydrodynamic cavitation plasma jet (HCPJ) is a promising plasma source for industrial-scale generation of biologically active environments at high flow rates of several m(3)/h. The combined effect of a hydro-mechanical phenomenon consisting of hydrodynamic cavitation and electrical discharge in cavitation voids was found to be highly efficient for large-volume generation of reactive oxygen species, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and electro-mechanical stress in a liquid environment. Here, the persistence of biocidal properties of HCPJ-activated water (i.e., plasma-activated water (PAW)) was tested by the study of algae and cyanobacteria inactivation. Algae and cyanobacteria cultivated in media containing PAW (1:1) were completely inactivated after 72 h from first exposure. The test was performed at a total power input of up to 0.5 kWh/m(3) at the treated liquid flow rate of 1 m(3)/h. A beneficial modification of our previous HCPJ design is described and thoroughly characterized with respect to the changes of hydrodynamic flow conditions as well as discharge performance and its optical characteristics. The modification proved to provide high biocidal activity of the resulting PAW, which confirms a strong potential for further design optimization of this promising water (liquid) plasma source.
Keywordsplasma activated water (PAW), electrical discharges with liquids, hydrodynamic cavitation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), algae, cyanobacteria, removal, decontamination
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceWater. 2020, vol. 12, issue 11, p. 1-18.