Different Response of Cast and 3D-Printed Co-Cr-Mo Alloy to Heat Treatment: A Thorough Microstructure Characterization
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The Co-Cr-Mo alloy is a biomaterial with very good corrosion resistance and wear resistance; thus, it is widely applied for knee replacements. The wear resistance is influenced by the amount of hcp phase and morphology of carbidic precipitates, which can both be altered by heat treatment. This study compares a conventional knee replacement manufactured by investment casting with a material prepared by the progressive technology of 3D printing. The first set of results shows a different response of both materials in increasing hardness with annealing at increasing temperatures up to the transformation temperature. Based on these results, solution treatment and subsequent aging at conditions to reach the maximum hardness was applied. Microstructural changes were studied thoroughly by means of optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. While increased hardness in the conventional material is caused by the precipitation of fine hard carbides combined with an increase in the hcp phase by isothermal transformation, a massive fcc -> hcp transformation is the main cause for the hardness increase in the 3D-printed material.
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceMetals. 2021, vol. 11, issue 5, p. 1-21.