Influence of Rainfall Events and Surface Inclination on Overland and Subsurface Runoff Formation on Low-Permeable Soil
MetadataShow full item record
This paper presents the results of laboratory tests that allowed us to determine the effect of the soil surface inclination and its initial moisture content on the formation of overland and subsurface runoff. The experiments were carried out for the soil that is commonly present in the southern part of Poland, including the Outer Carpathians. The results of these measurements served as a reference for overland runoff calculations using the Richards model, simplified Green–Ampt model, and the empirical model (MSME). The results of the measurements showed that, for low-permeable soil, overland runoff is the dominant form. It was shown that a slope in the range of 2.5–5.0% does not have a significant effect on the amount of overland runoff, but affects its dynamics. The measurements also showed that the starting time and amount of overland runoff are strictly associated with the initial soil moisture content. High soil moisture content in the period preceding the onset of rainfall causes faster generation and an increase in overland runoff, which is caused by the saturation of the surface layer of the soil. This mechanism was confirmed by the results of calculations using the Richards model and measurements of the electrical resistance of the soil. Theoretical calculations showed that the results of the runoff calculations using the Richards and Green–Ampt models are strongly dependent on the hydraulic properties of the soil adopted for the analysis. It was also demonstrated that the modified MSME model satisfactorily estimates the amount of overland and subsurface runoff, but requires parameter calibration based on existing hydrological data.
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceSustainability. 2022, vol. 14, issue 9, p. 1-27.
- Ústav vodních staveb