Using Volterra Series for an Estimation of Fundamental Intermodulation Products
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The most precise procedure for determining the intermodulation products is to find a steady-state period of the signal first, and then to calculate its spectrum by means of the fast Fourier transform. However, this method needs time-consuming numerical integration over many periods of the faster signal even for enhanced methods for finding the steady state. In the paper, an efficient method for fast estimation of the fundamental intermodulation products is presented. The method uses Volterra series in a simple multistep algorithm which is compatible with a typical structure of the frequency-domain part of circuit simulators. The method is demonstrated by an illustrative testing circuit first, which clearly shows possible incorrect interpretation of the Volterra series. Thereafter, practical usage of the algorithm is demonstrated by fast estimation of the main intermodulation products of a low-voltage low-power RF CMOS fourquadrant multiplier.
KeywordsSteady-state algorithm, fast Fourier transform, numerical integration, Volterra series, CMOS, RF multiplier
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceRadioengineering. 2008, vol. 17, č. 4, s. 59-64. ISSN 1210-2512
- 2008/4