Total Differential Errors in One-Port Network Analyzer Measurements with Application to Antenna Impedance
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The objective was to study uncertainty in antenna input impedance resulting from full one-port Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measurements. The VNA process equation in the reflection coefficient ρ of a load, its measurement m and three errors Es, determinable from three standard loads and their measurements, was considered. Differentials were selected to represent measurement inaccuracies and load uncertainties (Differential Errors). The differential operator was applied on the process equation and the total differential error dρ for any unknown load (Device Under Test DUT) was expressed in terms of dEs and dm, without any simplification. Consequently, the differential error of input impedance Z -or any other physical quantity differentiably dependent on ρ- is expressible. Furthermore, to express precisely a comparison relation between complex differential errors, the geometric Differential Error Region and its Differential Error Intervals were defined. Practical results are presented for an indoor UHF ground-plane antenna in contrast with a common 50 Ω DC resistor inside an aluminum box. These two built, unshielded and shielded, DUTs were tested against frequency under different system configurations and measurement considerations. Intermediate results for Es and dEs characterize the measurement system itself. A number of calculations and illustrations demonstrate the application of the method.
KeywordsMicrowave measurements, network analyzer, meas-urement errors, reflection coefficient, antenna input impedance
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceRadioengineering. 2007, vol. 16, č. 2, s. 1-8. ISSN 1210-2512
- 2007/2