Methodology for the Implementation of Internal Standard to Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Analysis of Soft Tissues
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The improving performance of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) triggered its utilization in the challenging topic of soft tissue analysis. Alterations of elemental content within soft tissues are commonly assessed and provide further insights in biological research. However, the laser ablation of soft tissues is a complex issue and demands a priori optimization, which is not straightforward in respect to a typical LIBS experiment. Here, we focus on implementing an internal standard into the LIBS elemental analysis of soft tissue samples. We achieve this by extending routine methodology for optimization of soft tissues analysis with a standard spiking method. This step enables a robust optimization procedure of LIBS experimental settings. Considering the implementation of LIBS analysis to the histological routine, we avoid further alterations of the tissue structure. Therefore, we propose a unique methodology of sample preparation, analysis, and subsequent data treatment, which enables the comparison of signal response from heterogenous matrix for different LIBS parameters. Additionally, a brief step-by-step process of optimization to achieve the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is described. The quality of laser–tissue interaction is investigated on the basis of the zinc signal response, while selected experimental parameters (e.g., defocus, gate delay, laser energy, and ambient atmosphere) are systematically modified.
Keywordslaser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, elemental mapping, soft tissue ablation, zinc, murine kidneys
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceSENSORS. 2021, vol. 21, issue 3, p. 1-13.