ZnO Structures with Surface Nanoscale Interfaces Formed by Au, Fe2O3, or Cu2O Modifier Nanoparticles: Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties
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Zinc oxide rod structures are synthetized and subsequently modified with Au, Fe2O3, or Cu2O to form nanoscale interfaces at the rod surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy corroborates the presence of Fe in the form of oxide-Fe2O3; Cu in the form of two oxides-CuO and Cu2O, with the major presence of Cu2O; and Au in three oxidation states-Au3+, Au+, and Au-0, with the content of metallic Au being the highest among the other states. These structures are tested towards nitrogen dioxide, ethanol, acetone, carbon monoxide, and toluene, finding a remarkable increase in the response and sensitivity of the Au-modified ZnO films, especially towards nitrogen dioxide and ethanol. The results for the Au-modified ZnO films report about 47 times higher response to 10 ppm of nitrogen dioxide as compared to the non-modified structures with a sensitivity of 39.96% ppm(-1) and a limit of detection of 26 ppb to this gas. These results are attributed to the cumulative effects of several factors, such as the presence of oxygen vacancies, the gas-sensing mechanism influenced by the nano-interfaces formed between ZnO and Au, and the catalytic nature of the Au nanoparticles.
Keywordszinc oxide, gold, iron oxide, copper oxide, interfaces, Schottky junctions, heterojunctions, gas sensing, nitrogen dioxide
Document typePeer reviewed
Document versionFinal PDF
SourceSENSORS. 2021, vol. 21, issue 13, p. 1-24.